All of this is well known; and in its own good time, criticism and philosophy has taken note of this disappearance or this death of the author.
The structure of a book of verse must be everywhere its own, innate, eliminating chance; still, the author must be omitted. For Paul de Man, such criticism has a quasi-theological function akin to unmasking idolatry:. Criticism […] functions more and more as a demystification of the belief that literature is a privileged language.
The dominant strategy consists of showing that certain claims to authenticity attributed to literature are in fact expressions of a desire that, like all desires, falls prey to the duplicities of expression. But not quite all readers have given their assent to this state of affairs.
This attitude of superiority of the critic to the poet, with its distancing of life from poetry, is aptly expressed by the poet-critic T. Why may it not be one tool among many? Because to the extent that the poet is allowed to exist , the free reign of the critic is threatened. If you would have power over a man, you have to do more than merely address him; you must shape him, and shape him so that he cannot want otherwise than you would have him want.
Obedience, once selected, becomes the lens through which these critics read, and the method by which they would shape readers in their own image, so that they cannot want otherwise, a process we can see at work in the long history of the relation between literature and criticism, beginning with the allegorical readings of the Song of Songs. The earliest examples are not rooted merely in suspicion, but in the openly-expressed desire to exercise authority over the hearts and minds of others, and many modern examples of suspicion-based criticism retain more than a trace of that original impulse.
One of the major contentions of this book is that too much of the work by specialists in many literary fields minimizes, reinterprets, or outright ignores the human elements of love and desire in poetry, a situation which scholars like Simon Gaunt and Sarah Kay admit has gone too far. In Simon Gaunt and Sarah Kay, eds.
go to site Politics , ed. Unless otherwise noted, all translations are ours. Summa Theologiae : Vol. Q, A6, Jean Calvin. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Contrat Social. Eikonoklastes London, , 3, Sig.
The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce. London, , Sig. Bernays, 27, Denn Propaganda ist nicht Selbstzweck, sondern Mittel zum Zweck. Evgeny Onegin , 1. In Aleksandr Sergeevich Pushkin.
Sobraniye Sochinenii. Blagoi, S.
Bondi, V. Vinogradov and Yu. Oksman Moscow: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, , Vol. In their beginnings, universities were training grounds for service in the church or at court for those students who took degrees , and institutions that inculcated obedience in the wider population. The subversiveness of an Abelard or a Wycliffe—which in each case came at a far greater cost than any paid, or even contemplated by the academic critic today—is most clearly understood in that context. Corpus Iuris Civilis , Vol.
Science in Context, A History of Classical Scholarship , Vol. I : From the Sixth Century B. Francois Rabelais. Gargantua et Pantagruel. Strabo, Geography , 1. In Strabo , Geography , Vol. I : Books 1—2 , ed. The Defence of Poesie.
III , ed. Paul Ricoeur. Essai sur Freud Paris: Seuil, , 32, 33— You always have to wait for me, the academic or theoretician, to explain it to you. Bruce Fleming. It is, rather, to contend that both art and politics are also a matter of connecting, composing, creating, coproducing, inventing, imagining, making possible: that neither is reducible to the piercing but one-eyed gaze of critique. The Limits of Critique , 17— Grundfragen der Philosophie.
Abteilung : Vorlesungen — It exists without beginning or ending […] Identical in its sameness, it remains itself and standing Thus firmly-set there, for strong and mighty necessity Limits it, holds it in chains, and shuts it in on both sides. Because of this, it is right what is should not be incomplete. Fragment 8, ll. It is this in which the slowest runner is never overtaken by the fastest; because since the swifter runner in the chase is always, at any given moment, first forced to reach the point where the fleeing runner set into motion, of necessity the slowest runner, who had the headstart, will always be in the lead.
Aristotle, Physics , Vol. II , Books 5—8 , ed. Wicksteed and F. In Gerd Baumann and Andre Gingrich, eds. In The Routledge Companion to Phenomenology , ed. IV: — Paris: Gallimard, , — In the work this opening, this unconcealing, of the truth of beings happens. In art, the truth of beings has set itself in motion.
Im Kunstwerk hat sich die Wahrheit des Seienden ins Werk gesetzt. Holzwege : Gesamtusgabe , Vol. V [Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, ], In Le Bruissement de la Langue. Essais Critiques IV. Paris: Seuil, , 65— Hillis Miller. Critical Inquiry , 3: 3 [Spring, ], In Harold Aram Veeser, ed. In his, ed. The New Historicism , xi. Deconstruction belongs to the second camp. For J. Daedalus , 1, In Praise of Books [Winter, ], Emphasis added.
If they talk to each other in incomprehensible rhetoric, nobody cares. Interview conducted at Leiden University March La Part de Feu [Paris: Gallimard, ], Proceedings of the Western Society for French History , 35 , Jacques Derrida. La Psychanalyse , 1 , Against Logicians , 2. A great deal of so-called Saussurian and post-Saussurian theory seems to operate as if the latter did not exist.
Greater Hippias. Lesser Hippias , ed. The Blackwell Companion to Hermeneutics , ed. Stadlerc, and Morten H. In summary, much literary theory and criticism over the last century is based on a questionable linguistic paradigm, the terms of which were inverted by its most prominent adherents to allow them to make claims for which there was otherwise no support.
Wimsatt Jr. The Sewanee Review , 3 July—September , Michel Foucault. Blindness and Insight , A Garland for John Donne , — , ed. In Dis continuities : Essays on Paul de Man , ed. Posted at rec. Every other student in the group condemned that idea, and the discussion was quickly dropped. Representations , 1 [Fall ], 1—2 , the trends of the last decade and a half seem ephemeral when compared to a style of reading and interpretation that has held sway for over two millennia.
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